Case Studies

Please find case studies of our work below:

Multi-Purpose Sensor

Existing Problems:  Current detection mechanisms use chemical processes to determine the existence of a pathogen or a virus. As a result, a lot of material is used, and the testing kit can only be used once leading to a high cost and waste. Also, for each virus new chemicals and testing kits and instructions need to be provided. The consequences are:

– Bad for the environment: The chemicals and kits are wasted and not easily recyclable
– 
Too costly:
  o  
Equipment: For each test a new kit and equipment is needed
  o  
Tests: New tests need to be developed for each pathogen
– 
High response time: Obtaining the test result is time consuming

Our solution: Our semiconductor biosensor doesn’t use chemicals, provides the results within seconds and can be programmed to detect any pathogen or virus without any limitations on the number of times they can be used.

Additional applications: The device can be used for identification of any liquid and is not limited to pathogens. Among its other applications the following can be mentioned:

– Medical applications:
 o  
Blood analysis: It can be programmed to determine the level of sugar or cholesterol in blood samples.
  o  
Cancer: It can identify the change in cancer cells after chemotherapy
– 
Food industry: An easy and fast way of checking any type of liquid food for its freshness and health
– 
Agricultural sector: Determining ripeness, level of chemicals, soil examination
– 
Boarder and customs: Examination for illegal substance contamination


Differences between MPS and conventional detectors

Conventional practical detectors are normally chemical based. Ours work based on the physical characteristics of any material. Specifically, it measures the placement of atoms in the molecule of viruses. The placement of atoms in a virus acts as an identifying fingerprint and this makes detection very accurate, and the result is available in seconds. 


Advantages compared to current detection methods

Reusable: Our device can be used thousands of times. A ten thousand test cycles would be minimum.

Programmable: Through its accompanying software application, the device can be programmed to detect any virus or pathogen. 

Fast and convenient: Detection occurs only in a few seconds and the result is stored in a computer. The device would be ready for another test withing a couple of minutes after wash and rinse.

Low temperature functionality: Our device is also suitable for gas detection at low temperatures. Gas detectors normally operate at elevated temperatures, which makes them especially impractical for space or combustible environments. Our detector can operate at any temperature down to zero kelvin.

Improved JFET

Existing Problems: The state-of-the-art technology for manufacturing CMOS has faced a challenge with regards to downscaling this type of transistor below 2-5 nanometre range. Also, the power consumption of these transistors needs to be decreased if further downscaling is to occur. It is also desirable to achieve higher frequencies in microprocessors – something that has remained dormant for several years now.

Our Solution: Our modified JFET addresses all these problems! It can be downscaled below 2nm without suffering the problems that CMOS has at these dimensions. Its power consumption is one tenth of CMOS transistors. Its speed is estimated to be at least 3 times faster than CMOS transistors.

Additional application usage: Our modified JFET transistors are optimal for supercomputer and space-based electronics as they:

 · perform better at lower temperatures (supercomputers are normally cooled); 

 · are more resilient against solar radiation;

 · are less noisy requiring less power transmit/receive information; and

 · consume much less energy that makes them optimum for these two applications.


Differences between our modified JFET with conventional JFETs

In our novel design, the Source and the Drain terminals do not need to reach (touch) the Gate connection. This approach eliminates several processing steps and allows for much smaller transistors to be fitted in advanced processors. This allows it to be operational at 1nm gate length. Manufacturing of our JFET is less time consuming and less expensive since some steps are not needed in our design.

Table: Comparison of conventional JFET with our Solution

Conventional JFET

Our Solution

Both Voltage polarity

No

Yes

Current Leakage Stoppage

No

Yes

Digital capabilities

No

Yes

Digital vs. Analogue

Analogue

Analogue/ Digital

Both voltage polarities: Our modified JFET can tolerate both voltage polarities at its input, unlike a regular JFET that can only accept one voltage polarity. If a different voltage polarity is applied to its input the device allows a very large current to flow from the input into the output either burning the transistor and its associated circuits or interfering with its operation in the best-case scenario.

Lack of current leakage: Our modified JFET eliminated the so-called input or gate current leakage that plagues all JFET transistors including HEMTs. As such it helps with the power consumption of the device; furthermore, in digital applications the power consumption of this transistor is relatively less compared to other types of transistors.

Digital performance: Unlike regular JFTEs, our modified version operates as a digital switch with all the performance characteristic that are needed for a viable microprocessor chip.

Analogue and digital: The fact that our transistor can operate with both voltage polarities, makes it possible to be used in analogue as well as digital applications.


Advantages compared to conventional CMOS transistors

Due to the limitations of JFET models, CMOS transistors are the most used types in chips. However, our modified JFET performs all the functions of CMOS and in addition has the following advantages:

Table Comparison of conventional CMOS and our Solution

Conventional CMOS

Our Solution

Power Efficiency

Switching Frequency

Signal to Noise Ratio

Manufacturability

Downscaling

Power efficiency: Compared to the state-of-the-art CMOS transistors and circuits, our JFET solutions can operate at lower voltage and current levels, meaning that they consume much less power.

Higher frequency of operation: Our modified JFET is intrinsically faster than CMOS transistors for two basic reasons. First the speed of electrons is higher secondly because parasitic capacitances are negligible compared to CMOS models.

Signal to noise ratio: The signal to noise ratio of our JFET is much better than CMOS. This means less power is necessary to transmit and read information from each transistor and much weaker signals can be amplified by these transistors.

Less fabrication steps: Our modified JFET is easier to fabricate than a CMOS (MOSFET). Our nanometre size modified JFET eliminates 4 unnecessary and expensive fabrication steps of CMOS manufacturing. These steps are currently proprietary and belong exclusively to certain manufacturers.   

Easier to downscale: Our modified JFET does not suffer from the nanometre size consequences that hamper the performance of CMOS. As a result, it can be downscaled by less expensive equipment. As is shown in Figure 1, the very fact that the source and drain do not need to touch the gate makes it possible to downsize the gate as much as technology allows without worrying that this brings the source and the drain closer to each other. The closeness of the source and drain causes all the problems for CMOS devices. Here we can keep the source and drain at a safe distance and decrease the size of the gate which determines the speed of the device. The size of a transistor is the critical dimension that determines its speed.

HEMT Transistor

Existing Problems: Current HEMT transistors cannot be used in digital circuits. Furthermore, these transistors suffer from the current leakage that connects their input to their output.

Our solution: Our modified HEMT transistor solves both mentioned problems. In other words, it can be used in digital circuits, and it also eliminates the current leakage.

Additional application usage: The possibility of digital usage opens a whole new set of applications and markets. These include:

– Ultrafast microprocessors for computers and smartphones that could be 100 times faster than the conventional silicon ones. Such fast microprocessors can improve AI technology by the same factor. 

– Medical applications in terms of non-invasive diagnostics becomes limitless. 

– The space electronic market can be dominated by this technology in a decade, because of its resistance to radiation.

Our design only adds one additional fabrication step to HEMT manufacturing process. The step involves oxidising a metal layer, which is a standard process in semiconductor manufacturing. This additional step allows the HEMT transistor to act as a digital subcircuit.

Comparison of conventional HEMT and our Solution

Conventional HEMT

Modified HEMT

Digital Capabilities

No

Yes

Both voltage polarity

No

Yes

Current leakage prevention

No

Yes

Microprocessor application

No

Yes

Digital performance: Perhaps the most distinguishing comparison is that unlike regular HEMTs our modified version can operate as a digital switch with all the performance characteristics that are needed for a viable microprocessor chip. Our modified HEMT is appropriate for both analogue and digital applications.

Both voltage polarities: Our modified HEMT can tolerate both voltage polarities at its input. Regular HEMT that can only accept one voltage polarity at its input and if a different voltage polarity is applied to it, the transistor burns up or its operation is ruined.

Lack of current leakage: Our modified HEMT eliminates the so-called input or gate current leakage. As such it helps with the power consumption of the device; furthermore, the total power that it can deliver is larger for radar and power electronic applications.

Microprocessor application: Current HEMT transistors cannot be used to make a microprocessor, but with our modified HEMT we can manufacturer microprocessors which are much faster than existing CMOS transistors. For example, using InP (Indium Phosphide) semiconductor compounds in our HEMTs results in digital circuits operating at 400 GHz frequency range. A frequency level that is unheard of and impossible to achieve by existing microprocessors based on CMOS transistors.